Both polar regions have been cooling in recent years, as indicated by the ocean temperatures of the Arctic and Antarctic regions, but Antarctica’s temperatures a much more stable than the NP ones,
The very warm PDO of the last ~2 years is the main cause of the strong oscillations of the Antarctic ice extent, from the quite stable previous state of positive anomalies since 2012.
The increasing anomalies should return after the PDO goes down to neutral and negative again in about 6 months, more or less.
One thing I don’t understand though is why it got so warm, especially at the end of 2014 and beginning of this year.
A possible reason is a spike of the EUV (E10.7 index) that happened exactly during this period, which was also the highest – in the present solar cycle – since the end of 2011,
The first spike of E10.7 flux corresponds to the Sun’s N. Pole maximum, the second spike is more prominent and corresponds to the the stronger S.Pole maximum.
The magnetic NP of the Sun has been around zero micro-T since it crossed zero in 2011 (http://www.solen.info/solar/polarfields/polar.html)
This is more than 4 years of low fields, after crossing. I believe it could be an indication of the LP-effect being proved correct. The anomalous PDO+ could be an indication of chaotic behavior due to the anomalous intensity of the NS-poles of the Sun.